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Terms starting with V

V4
— четвертая итерация архитектуры драйверов принтеров для Windows. В версиях Windows с Windows 2000 по Windows 7 применялась архитектура v3. V3 по-прежнему полностью поддерживается Windows 8 по соображениям совместимости с устройствами, поэтому если для вашего текущего принтера доступен какой-то существующий драйвер, то он по-прежнему будет работать в Windows 8.
Valid date
— дата начала действия.
Validation
— данные термин имеет множество значений, однако здесь подразумевается, что программа заручилась «одобрением» другого учреждения, подтверждающего, что ее выпускники получили достаточный объем знаний в рамках заявленной квалификации, например степени МВА. Иными словами, выпускники проверенной программы будут удостоены степени МВА другого учреждения. Это необходимо в том случае, если учебное заведение, организовавшее обучение по данной программе, не имеет права присуждать степени или если подтверждающее учреждение имеет более высокий статус. Программа, получающая подтверждение, может сильно отличаться от направленности подтверждающего учреждения, то есть учреждение передает свою программу на одобрение другой организации, имеющей соответствующий статус. Бывает, что эта программа во многом совпадает с программой подтверждающего учреждения, однако имеет ряд характерных особенностей, связанных с местной спецификой, и ее осуществляют от имени последнего образовательного органа. В любом случае, выпускники одобренной программы, осуществляемой одним вузом, получают степень в другом образовательном учреждении.
VALUE
— значение элемента.
Value Stream
— is defined as the specific activities within a supply chain required to design, order and provide a specific product or service.
Value Stream Mapping
— (VSM) is the process of charting out or visually displaying a value stream so that improvement activity can be effectively planned.
Value-Added Network
— (VAN) is a private network through which value-added carriers provide special data transmission services.
Value-Added Reseller
— (VAR) is an organization that buys equipment from a vendor at a discount, adds value (such as application software packaged and sold with underlying system software) and re-markets it.
Value-Added Service
— (VAS) generates additional revenue by offering increased benefits to subscribers. Total VAS revenue is calculated from the total of SMS, data-over-cellular and information-service revenue. All other VAS revenue is considered transparent and is included with call charges or subscription revenue.
Value-Adding
— activities are defined as those activities within a company or supply chain that directly contribute to satisfying end consumers, or those activities consumers would be happy to pay for.
ValueOps
— is a strategy for IT operations that offers a holistic set of frameworks, methodologies and philosophies to enable I&O leaders to implement the appropriate operations processes based upon the needs of the business by leveraging Gartner’s Pace-Layered Application Strategy.
var
— переменная.
Variable Bit Rate
— (VBR) is an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service category, defined by the ATM Forum. Both real-time variable bit rate (rtVBR) and non real-time variable bit rate (nrtVBR) are defined. Apart from the traffic parameters for peak cell rate (PCR) and sustainable cell rate (which defines the average bit rate required by the application), additional quality-of-service parameters such as maximum cell transfer delay, cell delay variation and maximum burst size must be agreed upon. The typical application for which it is used is compressed voice and videoconferencing for rtVBR, and response-time-sensitive data such as Systems Network Architecture (SNA) for nrtVBR.
VBScript
— (Visual Basic Scripting Edition) язык сценариев фирмы Microsoft, представляющий собой адаптированное для Web подмножество языка VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) с принятым в Microsoft синтаксисом Бейсика. Сценарии на языке VBScript чаще всего используются в следующих областях: автоматизация администрирования систем Windows; серверный программный код на страницах ASP в Web-приложениях; клиентские сценарии на Web-страницах (в браузере Internet Explorer).
VC-1
— кодек создан на основе WMV9. Является обязательным кодеком для Blu-Ray плееров.
VESA
— (Video Electronics StandardsAssociation) организация, занимающаяся выработкой стандартов для видеооборудования. Обычно аббревиатура применяется по отношению к поддержке в BIOS той или иной версии стандарта программирования видеоадаптера, разработанного этой организацией. Все видеокарты NVIDIA поддерживаю версию 3.0 этого стандарта.
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Vendor
— is the last entity in the chain that brands a product and sells it directly to end users or through a channel. A vendor may design and manufacture its own products, assemble complete systems from components produced by others, or procure products from an original equipment or contract manufacturer. A vendor may also provide services, maintenance or nonmaintenance for its own products or for other vendors’ products and may also provide services for IT technologies.
Vendor Management
— is a discipline that enables organizations to control costs, drive service excellence and mitigate risks to gain increased value from their vendors throughout the deal life cycle. Gartner’s vendor management research helps clients select the right vendors; categorize vendors to ensure the right contract, metrics and relationship; determine the ideal number of vendors; mitigate risk when using vendors; and establish a vendor management organization that best fits the enterprise. This enables organizations to optimally develop, manage and control vendor contracts, relationships and performance for the efficient delivery of contracted products and services. This can help clients meet business objectives, minimize potential business disruption, avoid deal and delivery failure, and ensure more-sustainable multisourcing, while driving the most value from their vendors.
Vendor Revenue
— is the revenue earned by technology providers for the sale of printer, copier and MFP hardware (that is, excluding supplies). It would be calculated by end-user spending minus channel margins.
Vendor Risk Management
— (VRM) is the process of ensuring that the use of service providers and IT suppliers does not create an unacceptable potential for business disruption or a negative impact on business performance. VRM technology supports enterprises that must assess, monitor and manage their risk exposure from third-party suppliers (TPSs) that provide IT products and services, or that have access to enterprise information.
Vendor-Neutral
— describes a state in which no one vendor can control the definition, revision or distribution of a specification. Vendor-neutral specifications encourage the development of competing yet compatible implementations, freeing the purchaser to choose from a multitude of vendors without suffering a loss of functionality. Vendor-neutral specifications must be comprehensive, consistent, and either publicly available or licensed at a nominal fee. Additionally, they must be defined by a multilateral association that is representative of a broad cross-section of the computer industry, open to new members, publishes the rules of membership and operates according to democratic principles. Preferably, a vendor-neutral specification is supplemented with at least one reference implementation. This reference would be available in a format that allows re-creation — that format would be source code for software implementations — and a set of conformance tests that sufficiently ensure the implementation’s integrity under all reasonable conditions of projected use.
Versatile Authentication Server and Service
— (VAS) is a single authentication product or service supporting user authentication in multiplatform environments (on-premises and in the cloud). It may be delivered as server software, a virtual or hardware appliance, or a cloud-based service. In addition to the VAS vendor’s own and OEMed proprietary methods, if any, a VAS must support either open authentication methods or third-party proprietary authentication methods, without the need for separate third-party authentication servers or services.
Vertical Helical Scan
— аналоговый стандарт записи видео на магнитные кассеты, используемый в бытовых видеомагнитофонах. Принято считать, что аббревиатура VHS обозначает Video Home System, хотя оригинальная расшифровка совершенно иная.
Very High-Speed Digital Subscriber Lines
— (VDSL) are extremely high-speed digital subscriber line (DSL) connections over short distances. VDSL offers speeds from 13 Mbps to more than 100 Mbps over distances of between 1,000 and 4,500 feet — the shorter the distance, the higher the speed. VDSL comes in both asymmetrical and symmetrical flavors and in different configurations. Most advanced VDSL deployments use VDSL2, which promises up to 100 Mbps bandwidth. We account for all VDSL technologies together in our generic VDSL (VDSLx) category.
Very Large-Scale Integration
— (VLSI) is a technology that makes it possible to place the equivalent of between 100,000 and 1 million transistors on a chip.
Very Small Aperture Terminal
— (VSAT) is a small-sized earth station used in the transmit/receive of data, voice and video signals over a satellite communication network, excluding broadcast television. A VSAT consists of two parts: a transceiver placed outdoors in direct line of sight to the satellite, and a device that is placed indoors to interface the transceiver with the end user’s communications device, such as a PC. The transceiver receives or sends a signal to a satellite transponder in the sky. The satellite sends and receives signals from a ground station computer that acts as a hub for the system. Each end user is interconnected with the hub station via the satellite, forming a star topology. The hub controls the entire operation of the network. For one end user to communicate with another, each transmission must first go to the hub station, which then retransmits it via the satellite to the other end user’s VSAT. VSAT data throughput speeds have increased significantly throughout the years and now can provide multimegabit service in downstream and upstream. Antenna/dish sizes usually range from 1.2 meters to approximately 3 meters in diameter. Generally, these systems operate in Ku-band and C-band frequencies, but with the launch of Ka-band satellites by a number of operators in North America and Asia/Pacific, and with newer Ka-band satellites planned for Europe, high-bandwidth, bidirectional VSAT services for enterprise, government and other users will increasingly migrate to these satellites.
VGA
— (VGA HD-15) разъем CRT мониторов и некоторых ЖК-мониторах. VGA имеет форму трапеции и содержит 15 контактов, которые расположены в 3 ряда.
VHS
— (Video Home System) самый распространенный аналоговый видеоформат для бытовой видеотехники. В настоящее время VHS и его разновидности – VHS-C и Super-VHS – активно вытесняются цифровыми стандартами записи видео.
Video BIOS/VBIOS
— (Basic Input/Output system) микропрограмма, отвечающая за преобразование команд языка управления видеоадаптером в машинные коды исполнительному устройству видеопроцессора. Также отвечает за самопроверку функционирования видеоадаптера при включении и за хранение и выдачу информации о возможностях видеоадаптера драйверу, либо иной программе. Физически размещается в отдельном чипе на видеокарте.
Video CD (Super Video CD)
— форматы для записи видео на обычный компакт-диск. Super Video CD отличается от Video CD более высоким разрешением изображения и использованием для кодирования видео алгоритма MPEG-2, применяемого также в DVD.
Video on Demand
— (VOD) is a generic term covering several areas. It includes all video content requested on-demand by users. This could be premium movies or libraries of TV shows, sporting events or concerts. It could also include user-created video content. In addition, some IPTV operators are starting to offer the ability to see all the TV programs aired on their multichannel pay-TV channels in the previous 24 or 48 hours on demand. This video content is held in a constantly updated library hosted by their network. VOD services are sold either on a pay-per-view basis or as monthly subscriptions. Bundling in flat-rate packages with multichannel subscriptions is also common.
Video Telepresence
— is a form of immersive video communication that creates the impression of being in the same room as other conference participants. These conference participants appear as life-size individuals on large plasma, LCD, light-emitting diode or projection screens. Multiple cameras and microphones pick up individuals or pairs of individuals, so that all audiovisual information becomes directional, with eye contact and spatial sound aligned with the location of the person speaking.
Videoconferencing
— as communication by individuals or groups using systems that support image, voice and data transfer over digital networks or telephone circuits. Videoconferencing systems can take the form of large, dedicated units for group meetings or can be integrated with desktop personal computers.
Virtual Assistant
— (VA) is a conversational, computer-generated character that simulates a conversation to deliver voice- or text-based information to a user via a Web, kiosk or mobile interface. A VA incorporates natural-language processing, dialogue control, domain knowledge and a visual appearance (such as photos or animation) that changes according to the content and context of the dialogue. The primary interaction methods are text-to-text, text-to-speech, speech-to-text and speech-to-speech.
Virtual Channel
— (VC) in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), a virtual channel is a communications track between two nodes giving the bandwidth needed for a virtual connection across the network.
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
— (VDI) is the practice of hosting a desktop operating system within a virtual machine (VM) running on a centralized server. VDI is a variation on the client/server computing model, sometimes referred to as server-based computing. The term was coined by VMware for its VMware server and Virtual Desktop Manager (VDM).
Virtual LAN
— (VLAN) is a set of systems that, regardless of higher-layer addressing or location, is designated as a logical LAN and treated as a set of contiguous systems on a single LAN segment. Virtual LANs can be proprietary or standardized using the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.1Q. Typical grouping parameters for VLANs include the port number of the hub, switch or router, the higher-layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP) or Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), the Media Access Control (MAC) address, and the traditional subnet. The goal of VLANs is to provide simpler administration, simple moves/adds/changes to network devices, and partitioning at the MAC layer.
Virtual Machine
— (VM) is a software implementation of a hardware-like architecture, which executes predefined instructions in a fashion similar to a physical central processing unit (CPU). A VM can be used to create a cross-platform computing environment that loads and runs on computers independently of their underlying CPUs and operating systems. A notable example is the Java Virtual Machine, the environment created on a host computer to run Java applets. Although VMs have existed longer than Java, Java has made VMs highly visible.
Virtual Matrix Organization
— uses resources (people) that are also directly responsible for, or part of, other lines of business.
Virtual Network Operator
— (VNO) is an entity that does not own a telecom network infrastructure but provides telecom services by purchasing capacity from telecom carriers.
Virtual Private Network
— (VPN) the mechanism of secure communication (through the tunnel) the traffic between local networks via public networks (Internet). To create there are 4 different VPN protocols: PPTP, L2F, L2TP, and IPSec.
(VPN) is a system that delivers enterprise-focused communication services on a shared public network infrastructure and provides customized operating characteristics uniformly and universally across an enterprise. The term is used generically to refer to voice VPNs. To avoid confusion, IP-based data services are referred to as data VPNs. Service providers define a VPN as a WAN of permanent virtual circuits, generally using asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or frame relay to transport IP. Technology providers define a VPN as the use of encryption software or hardware to bring privacy to communications over a public or untrusted data network.
Virtual Reality
— (VR) provides a computer-generated 3D environment that surrounds a user and responds to that individual’s actions in a natural way, usually through immersive head-mounted displays and head tracking. Gloves providing hand tracking and haptic (touch sensitive) feedback may be used as well. Room-based systems provide a 3D experience for multiple participants; however, they are more limited in their interaction capabilities.
Virtual Reality Modeling Language
— (VRML) provides a means of rendering 3D worlds from mathematical equations or descriptions. A VRML browser can create shapes and text within a navigable 3D context. The v.2.0 specifications further enhance the immersive experience, allowing for such real-world events as interaction between “visitors” and collision detection when a user “bumps into” an object or other users.
Virtual Server Facility
— (VSF) is a feature of second-generation Advanced CMOS-ECL (ACE) technology that effectively allows a user to physically partition a system into multiple systems, all within the cabinetry of the bigger system.
Virtual Switch
— a virtual switch provides three primary capabilities for communications within a virtualized environment: switching, security controls and visibility. A virtual switch provides connectivity among instances within the virtual environment, without the communication having to go through the standard physical switches connected to the virtualized servers.
Virtual Tape Library
— (VTL) is a disk appliance that has special software that makes the device appear as a physical tape drive or tape library to the backup application; the device is accessed through standard tape interfaces. The backup software believes it is writing the backup data to a real tape cartridge when it is, in fact, writing to a specially configured file on the disk appliance. Similarly, the backup software will use the appliance for recovery, accessing the device as if the recovery is coming from tape, when it is actually being transferred from disk spindles on the appliance. At its essence, a VTL is both a disk-based appliance and a tape-like interface.
Virtualization
— is the abstraction of IT resources that masks the physical nature and boundaries of those resources from resource users. An IT resource can be a server, a client, storage, networks, applications or OSs. Essentially, any IT building block can potentially be abstracted from resource users.
Virtualization Software
— the virtualization software market includes all software products that are sold as value-added options to run on an x86 server or a desktop to create or manage a specific virtualized environment. Revenue is for new license sales and for maintenance and support services that include new version license sales to update an existing license to a new version, telephone support and on-site remedial support. Revenue does not include professional services. For products to be included in this coverage, they must represent a revenue stream for the company that is separately tracked and not be only part of a bundled product or service. The virtualization software market is divided into three segments: server virtualization infrastructure, server virtualization management and HVDs. Other forms of virtualization software, such as application virtualization, shared OS virtualization, mainframe virtualization and thin provisioning, are not included in specific virtualization revenue reporting at this time.
Virus
— a dangerous program containing code that replicates a copy of itself.
Visitor Location Register
— (VLR) is a server in a cellular network that supports roaming functions for users outside the coverage area of their own HLR. The VLR uses Signaling System 7 to obtain information about the user from the HLR, and then establishes a temporary record on the VLR while the user is within the VLR coverage area, ensuring mobility management and call-handling functions.
Visual Basic
— (VB) is a high-level programming language from Microsoft.
Visual Basic Extension
— (VBX) is a Visual Basic add-on that Microsoft is converting to an Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Custom Controls (OCX) infrastructure.
Visual Basic for Applications
— (VBA) is the version of Microsoft’s Visual Basic (VB) used to create basic and customized programs.
Visual Studio
— (VS) is a Microsoft package of several application development (AD) tools with complementary, albeit overlapping, focuses, including Visual Basic, Visual C++ and Visual J++.
Visualization
— is the illustration of information objects and their relationships on a display. Strategic visualization graphically illustrates the strength of relationships by the proximity of objects on the display. Advanced technology can make a significant difference in users’ ability to interface to large knowledge repositories. These advances use the distance between objects on the display to reflect the similarity of meaning, similarity of content or other relationships (e.g., association with a group).
VOB
— (MPEG 2 Program Stream) поддерживает только два видеокодека, MPEG1 и MPEG2, есть поддержка субтитров, глав (если брать диск целиком как единый контейнер) и различных звуковых форматов.
Voice Application Servers
— consist primarily of software, operating on Sun or Linux servers located in a service provider network, and functioning in conjunction with other standard network elements such as routers, gateways, integrated access devices (IADs) and telephones. This category is made up of IP-SCPs and IP Centrex platforms.
Voice Authorization
— голосовая авторизация.
Voice Browser
— is a system that enables telephone access to voice portal sites. It prepares and presents information to callers. It also interprets commands and enables navigation. Architectures and implementations vary, but many will use VoiceXML or a similar protocol to access the portal application. This is sometimes called a VoiceXML gateway.
Void
— отказ.
Voice-Enabled Residential/Small-Office Gateway/Router with Embedded DSL Modem
— also known as an xDSL IAD, is part of a voice-over-DSL solution. It enables the bundling of multiple derived voice lines, high-speed data and continuous Internet access over a single DSL connection. It typically combines a DSL modem with a router, firewall and varying plain old telephone service (POTS) port configurations. It can be a wired device or include a wireless access point.
Voice Encryption
— is defined as a function that enables a device to transport digitized voice signals.
Voice Endpoint
— describes a voice device, like a telephone, as a terminating device. This could be a physical extension or a logical IP address. This particularly applies to IP telephones where 100% IP system functions are not fully used for voice telephones and terminals.
Voice Mail
— describes a network system that enables unanswered phone calls to be diverted to a personal answering service. Revenue may be generated by making a connection charge to the service, a subscription charge for the service, or by charging the subscriber for messages deposited or retrieved.
Voice of the Customer
— (VoC) solutions combine multiple, traditionally siloed technologies associated with the capture, storage and analysis of direct, indirect and inferred customer feedback. Technologies such as social media monitoring, enterprise feedback management, speech analytics, text mining and Web analytics are integrated to provide a holistic view of the customer’s voice. The resultant customer insights are acted on by disseminating relevant information to the right person at the right time on the right channel.
Voice Over Wireless LAN
— (VoWLAN) is defined as the use of VoIP technology and wireless network components to support voice over Wi-Fi.
Voice Portal
— uses advanced speech recognition technology and provides access to information on the Internet. Key components of most voice portals are speech recognition, text to speech, information aggregation, categorization software, telephony and Internet interfaces, and administrative interfaces. Optional components include software to support context-sensitive, personalized assistance (for example, an intelligent assistant) and support for VoiceXML.
Voice Response System
— (VRSs) are specialized technologies designed for providing callers with verbal and faxed answers to inquiries without assistance from a person. They provide account information, fulfill requests for mailable items, prescreen callers for script customization, interact with host systems (read and write) and produce reports.
Voice Response Unit
— (VRU) is an automated telephone answering system consisting of hardware and software that allows the caller to navigate through a series of prerecorded messages and use a menu of options through the buttons on a touch-tone telephone or through voice recognition.
Voice Switching, Control and Applications
— (VSCA) refers to the functions performed in a network that alter the path taken by information as it traverses that network, whether in real time or near real time. In this sense, switching includes packet-routing technologies (for example, Internet Protocol [IP], asynchronous transfer mode [ATM] and frame relay). The markets tracked in the switching category include well-known ones, such as softswitches, call session control function (CSCF), application servers and media gateways.
VoIP
— (Voice Over Internet Protocol) is based on an IP standard that is capable of transporting voice and data packets over the same network. Unlike circuit-switched networks, IP doesn’t require a dedicated connection for an entire call. Voice signals are converted to packets that are sent across the network and reassembled in the correct order when they reach their destination. VoIP services can be deployed over the Internet or private IP networks (LAN/WLAN).
VoiceXML
— is an XML-based language supported by more than 200 companies. It was founded by AT&T, IBM, Lucent and Motorola. The purpose of VoiceXML is to develop interactive voice-controlled applications.
Volumetric bandwidth flood attack
— attackers flood the victim with a high volume of packets, consuming networking equipment resources or bandwidth resources. These are network DDoS flood attacks such as SYN flood attacks (high packet-per-second attacks), large UDP packet floods (bandwidth attacks), ICMP floods, and more.
Volumetric Displays
— create visual representations of objects in three dimensions, with an almost 360-degree spherical viewing angle in which the image changes as the viewer moves around. True volumetric displays fall into two categories: swept volume displays and static volume displays. Swept volume displays use the persistence of human vision to re-create volumetric images from rapidly projected 2D “slices.” Static volume displays use no major moving parts to display images, but rather rely on a 3D volume of active elements (Volumetric Picture Elements, or voxels) changing color (or transparency) to display a solid option.
VOSIM
— (voice simulator) моделирующее устройство для имитации речи, имитатор речи.
VP8
— кодек от On2 — компании, которая разработала VP3 (Theora). Технически он схож с H.264 базового профиля, но имеет большой потенциал для развития.
В 2010 году Google приобрел On2, опубликовал спецификации кодека и выложил примеры кода кодера/декодера. Более того, Google «открыл» все патенты On2, зарегистрированные на VP8, сделав их свободными от отчислений. Это лучшее, что можно сделать с патентами. Вы не можете на самом деле «освободить» их или свести на нет, после того как они были выпущены. Чтобы сделать их открытыми для пользователей у вас должна быть лицензия без отчислений, после чего каждый может использовать технологию, ничего не платя и без заключения лицензионного соглашения. С мая 2010 VP8 — это современный видео кодек, не обремененный никакими патентами, кроме патентов, которые On2 (теперь Google) уже лицензировали безвозмездно.
VPE
— (Video Processing Engine) обозначение применяемых в видеопроцессорах GeForce4 и выше технологий ускоренияи улучшения качества вывода видеоконтента, такого как DVD. Включает большое число аппаратно выполняемых процедур алгоритма сжатия видео MPEG2, деинтерлейсинга (устранения эффекта черезстрочной прорисовки видеокадров) и поддержку преобразования многочисленных моделей представления цветов в рабочую модель компьютера или телевизора.
VRRP
— (Virtual Routing Redundancy Protocol) отказоустойчивая маршрутизация в сети.
VSS
— (Volume Shadows Copy Service) служба теневого или фонового копирования томов, делает "снимок" текущего содержимого общего ресурса (диска или папки), а затем отслеживает изменения этого ресурса. Изменения регистрируются по файлам, поэтому записывается не все содержимое измененного файла, а только сами изменения. Теневая копия позволяет пользователю восстановить предыдущее состояние случайно удаленного или искаженного из-за технической неполадки файла. Существует служба VSS на сервере WinServer 2003 и клиентская часть VSS. Клиентская часть находится на установочном компакт-диске WinServer 2003 CD и может распространяться по клиентским компьютерам с помощью общей или групповой политики. Клиентская часть пригодна для Win2K\XP\ 98. В настоящее время не реализована поддержка WinNT 4.0 и WinME, а соответствующей версии для Win95 вообще не предвидится.
V-sync
— обозначение привязки обновления изображения видеопроцессором к частоте вертикальной синхронизации текущего видеорежима. Если привязка включена, то видеопроцессор, обновив изображение, ждет следующего синхроимпульса CCRT. Если отключено, то видеопроцессор изменяет изображение без оглядки на реальную частоту обновления экрана устройства вывода. Отключение может дать прирост производительности, если среднее число кадров в секунду (FPS) значительно меньше частоты вертикальной синхронизации. Если же FPS примерно равен или больше частоты синхроимпульсов, то отключение не даст прибавки скорости и может привести к различным искажениям изображение на экране устройства вывода.
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